The discovery of America by Columbus in 1492 provides as good a date as any to mark the beginnings of the modern age. The 15th century was at the same time the last medieval century and the first modern one. Columbus typifies the age. He and almost everyone else at that time knew that the earth was a globe, but few thought it revolved around the sun.
Columbus’s cosmos was essentially the same as that of Ptolemy, of the 2nd century. Ptolemy was a scientist, and his theories were scientific theories, not myths. He based them on scientific research and observation, not on mystical experience, creative imagination, or anything else of a non-rational nature.
The medieval period was no more an age of faith than ours is today.